Polysorbate 80 is a synthetic non-ionic emulsifier, widely used in cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical preparations. Its industrial manufacturing method is: under the condition of alkali catalysis, the addition reaction of ethylene oxide with sorbitol fatty acid esters and sorbitol fatty acid esters is carried out, in which every 1mol of sorbitol or corresponding sorbitol anhydride is added to 20mol of epoxy ethane.
The most common types of polysorbates are polysorbate 20, 40, 60, 65 and 80. In addition, there are also polysorbate 21, 61, 81 and 85. Polysorbate at room temperature is paste-like or in a form of sticky oily liquid with a color between light beige and light yellow. Polysorbate has good thermal stability. Because the long polyoxyethylene chain, the hydrophilic group is the dominant component of the entire emulsifier molecule.
Polysorbate 80 is hydrophilic which have large HLB values of 15.0 that belongs to O/W type emulsifier. The surface activity of polysorbate 80 emulsifier is not affected by environmental pH and can significantly reduce the interfacial tension of soybean oil/water system at a very low use concentration (0.05%). Polysorbate 80 is water-soluble, and can help lipophilic substances which are insoluble in water dissolve in water. Polysorbate 80 is widely used in the food industry. It can be used as emulsifier, stabilizer and dispersing agent in baked goods and used in bread, cake, ice cream and shortening. They can also be used to prepare flavorings containing oil soluble flavor substances.